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Different orders of Sufism….
Sufism or taṣawwuf(Arabic:  تصوّف) is defined by its adherents as the inner, mystical dimension of Islam.A practitioner of this tradition is generally known as a ṣūfī (صُوفِيّ). Another name for a Sufi is Dervish.

Classical Sufi scholars have defined Sufism as "a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God." Alternatively, in the words of the Darqawi Sufi teacher Ahmad ibn Ajiba, "a science through which one can know how to travel into the presence of the Divine, purify one's inner self from filth, and beautify it with a variety of praiseworthy traits."

Classical Sufis were characterised by their attachment to dhikr (a practice of repeating the names of God) and asceticism. Sufism gained adherents among a number of Muslims as a reaction against the worldliness of the early Umayyad Caliphate (661-750 CE). Sufis have spanned several continents and cultures over a millennium, at first expressed through Arabic, then through Persian, Turkish and a dozen other languages. "Orders" (ṭuruq), which are either Sunnī or Shī'ī or mixed in doctrine, trace many of their original precepts from the Islamic Prophet Muhammad through his cousin 'Alī, with the notable exception of the Naqshbandi who trace their origins through the first Caliph, Abu Bakr. Other exclusive schools of Sufism describe themselves as distinctly Sufi. Modern Sufis often performdhikr after the conclusion of prayers.

Some mainstream scholars of Islam define sufism as simply the name for the inner or esoteric dimension of Islam.René Guénon in 'Insights into Islamic Esoterism and Taoism ' (Sophia Perennis 2003) contended that Sufism was the esoteric aspect of Islam supported and complemented by exoteric practices and Islamic law. However, according to Idries Shah, the Sufi philosophy is universal in nature, its roots predating the rise of Islam and the other modern-day religions, save for perhaps Buddhism and Jainism; likewise, some Muslims consider Sufism outside the sphere of Islam.

Literal Background….
Etymology and origin of the term…
Two origins of the word 'sufi' have been suggested. Commonly, the lexical root of the word is traced to ṣafā (صَفا), which in Arabic means "purity". Another origin is ṣūf (صُوف), "wool", referring to the simple cloaks the early Muslim ascetics wore.

The two were combined by the Sufi al-Rudhabari who said, "The Sufi is the one who wears wool on top of purity." The wool cloaks were sometimes a designation of their initiation into the Sufi order,Others have suggested that word comes from the term ahl aṣ-ṣuffah ('the people of the bench'), who were a group of impoverished companions of the Prophet Muhammad who held regular gatherings of ikr.

According to the medieval Iranian scholar Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī the word sūfi is a derivation from the Greek word "sofia" (σοφία), meaning wisdom

Chronological Background…
History of Sufism…
In its early stages of development Sufism effectively referred to nothing more than the internalization of Islam.According to one perspective, it is directly from the Qur'an, constantly recited, meditated, and experienced, that Sufism proceeded, in its origin and its development. Others have held that Sufism is the strict emulation of the way of Muhammad, through which the heart's connection to the Divine is strengthened.
From the traditional Sufi point of view, the esoteric teachings of Sufism were transmitted from Muhammad to those who had the capacity to acquire the direct experiential gnosis of God, which was passed on from teacher to student through the centuries. Some of this transmission is summarized in texts, but most is not. Important contributions in writing are attributed to Uwais al-Qarni, Harrm bin Hian, Hasan Basri and Sayid ibn al-Mussib, who are regarded as the first Sufis in the earliest generations of Islam. Harith al-Muhasibi was the first one to write about moral psychology. Rabia Basri was a Sufi known for her love and passion for God, expressed through her poetry. Bayazid Bastami was among the first theorists of Sufism; he concerned himself with fanā and baqā, the state of annihilating the self in the presence of the divine, accompanied by clarity concerning worldly phenomena derived from that perspective.

Sufism had a long history already before the subsequent institutionalization of Sufi teachings into devotional orders (tarîqât) in the early Middle Ages. Almost all extant Sufi orders trace their chains of transmission (silsila) back to Muhammad via his cousin and son-in-law Ali. The Naqshbandi order is a notable exception to this rule, as it traces the origin of its teachings from Muhammad to the first Islamic Caliph Abu Bakr.

Different devotional styles and traditions developed over time, reflecting the perspectives of different masters and the accumulated cultural wisdom of the orders. Typically all of these concerned themselves with the understanding of subtle knowledge (gnosis), education of the heart to purify it of baser instincts, the love of God, and approaching God through a well-described hierarchy of enduring spiritual stations (maqâmât) and more transient spiritual states (ahwâl).

Formalization of doctrine
Towards the end of the first millennium CE, a number of manuals began to be written summarizing the doctrines of Sufism and describing some typical Sufi practices. Two of the most famous of these are now available in English translation: the Kashf al-Mahjûb of Hujwiri, and the Risâla of Qushayri.[32]

Two of Imam Al Ghazali's greatest treatises, the "Revival of Religious Sciences" and the "Alchemy of Happiness," argued that Sufism originated from the Qur'an and was thus compatible with mainstream Islamic thought, and did not in any way contradict Islamic Law—being instead necessary to its complete fulfillment. This became the mainstream position among Islamic scholars for centuries, challenged only recently on the basis of selective use of a limited body of texts[example needed]. Ongoing efforts by both traditionally trained Muslim scholars and Western academics are making Imam Al-Ghazali's works available in English translation for the first time,[33] allowing English-speaking readers to judge for themselves the compatibility of Islamic Law and Sufi doctrine.

Growth of Sufi influence in Islamic cultures
The spread of Sufism has been considered a definitive factor in the spread of Islam, and in the creation of integrally Islamic cultures, especially in Africa[34] and Asia. Recent academic work on these topics has focused on the role of Sufism in creating and propagating the culture of the Ottomanworld,[35] and in resisting European imperialism in North Africa and South Asia.[36]

Between the 13th and 16th centuries CE, Sufism produced a flourishing intellectual culture throughout the Islamic world, a "Golden Age" whose physical artifacts are still present. In many places, a lodge (known variously as a zaouia, khanqah, or tekke) would be endowed through a pious foundation in perpetuity (waqf) to provide a gathering place for Sufi adepts, as well as lodging for itinerant seekers of knowledge. The same system of endowments could also be used to pay for a complex of buildings, such as that surrounding the Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, including a lodge for Sufi seekers, ahospice with kitchens where these seekers could serve the poor and/or complete a period of initiation, a library, and other structures. No important domain in the civilization of Islam remained unaffected by Sufism in this period

Different orders of Sufism…
Current Sufi orders include
2): Chishti
5): Mevlevi
10): Azimiyya

Explanation about different orders…
Origin And Foundation...
This article is about the sufi order. For the Ba'Alawi family, see Ba'Alawi sadah.
The Ba'Alawi tariqa (Arabic: طريقة آل باعلوي‎), also known as the Tariqa Alawiyya is a Sufi order centered in Hadhramawt, Yemen, but now spread across the Indian Ocean rim along with the Hadhrami diaspora. The order is closely tied to the Ba'Alawi sadah family.

It was founded by al-Faqih Muqaddam As-Sayyid Muhammad bin Ali Ba'Alawi al-Husaini, who died in the year 653 AH (1232 CE). He received his ijazah from Abu Madyan in Morocco via two of his students. Abu Madyan was a student of Abdul Qadir Jilani, as well as one of the shaikhs in the Shadhiliya tariqa chain of spiritual transmitters from Muhammad. The members of this Sufi way are mainly sayyids whose ancestors hail from the valley of Hadramaut, in the southern part of Yemen, although it is not limited to them.
The chain of ijazah of spiritual Sufi transmission from al-Faqih Muqaddam Sayyid Muhammad traces back to the Islamic prophet Muhammad via his cousin Ali and from him, his sonHusain

Early beginnings
The name Ba'Alawi itself is a Hadhrami contraction of the terms Bani 'Alawi or the Clan of 'Alawi.
In the early 4th Century Hijri at 318 H, Sayyid Ahmad al-Muhaajir bin Isa ar-Rumi bin Muhammad al-Naqib bin Ali al-Uraidhi ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq migrated from Basrah, Iraq first to Mecca and Medina, and then to Hadhramout, to avoid the chaos then prevalent in the Abbassid Caliphate, where descendants of Muhammad were continuously being suspected of arson and revolt against the caliph. Most descendants of Muhammad known as sayyids enjoyed much followings due to their steep knowledge in Islam and its teachings, both esoteric and exoteric. Although such personalities may not have political ambitions, having huge followings means that they always attract the suspicions of the caliphate.

The name 'Alawi refers to the grandson of Sayyid Ahmad al-Muhajir, who was the first descendant of Husain, Muhammad's grandson, to be born in Hadramaut and the first to bear such a name.

Thus all the 'Alawi sayyids of Hadramaut are his progeny, and his descendants has since spread far and wide to the Arabian Peninsula, India especially in northern states of Surat and Ahmadebad and along the Malabar Coasts, North and West Coast of Africa, India, and the countries of the Malay Archipelago spreading Sunni Islam of the Shafii school and the Ba'Alawi Tariqah brand of sufism.

Tarim, Hadhramaut…
For about 800 years, the city of Tarim in Hadhramaut has been the centre of learning in Islamic jurisprudence or fiqh, notably of the Shafi Sunni school. The masters or early predecessors of the Ba'Alawi Tariqa are also mainly buried in the grounds of Tarim and thus up to this day, their shrines form part of the necessary destinations for visitors to Hadramaut. Today, two popular institutions for the study of Islam are Rubaat Tarim and the relatively new Dar al-Mustafa, the latter under the leadership of Habib Umar bin Hafi

2): Chishti
Origin And Foundation...
The Chishtī Order (Persian: چشتی - Čištī) is a Sufi order within the mystic branches of Islam which was founded in Chisht, a small town near Herat, Afghanistan about 930 CE. The Chishti Order is known for its emphasis on love, tolerance, and openness. The doctrine of the Chishti Order is based on walāya, which is a fundamental notion of Islamic social, political and spiritual life. The Chishti’s were first exposed to this idea of walāya, from Sufi ideas, but developed two different categories of it: walāya of divine lordship and the walāya of divine love

The order was founded by Abu Ishaq Shami (“the Syrian”) who introduced the ideas of Sufism to the town of Chisht, some 95 miles east of Herat in present-day western Afghanistan. Before returning to Syria, where he is now buried next to Ibn Arabi at Jabal Qasioun  Shami initiated, trained and deputized the son of the local emir, Abu Ahmad Abdal. Under the leadership of Abu Ahmad’s descendants, the Chishtiya as they are also known, flourished as a regional mystical order.

Chishti master Inayat Khan (1882–1927) was the first to bring the Sufi path to the West, arriving in America in 1910 and later settling near Paris, France. His approach exemplified the tolerance and openness of the Chishti Order, following a custom began by Moinuddin Chishti of initiating and training disciples regardless of religious affiliation and which continued through Nizamuddin Auliya and Shah Kalim Allah Jahanabadi. Chishti master Mido Chishty has taken teachings of the order to develop FUZN. This has proven popular in the Middle East,Australia and California

 Key ideas…
The Chishti saints had two hallmarks which differentiate them from other Sufi saints. The first was their ethical relations to the institutional powers. This meant voluntarily keeping a distance from the ruler or the government mechanism. It didn't matter if the ruler was a patron or a disciple: he was always kept at bay since it was felt that mixing with the ruler will corrupt the soul by indulging it in worldly matters. In his last discourse to disciples, Khawaja Moinuddin Chishti said:
Never seek any help, charity, or favors from anybody except God. Never go the court of kings, but never refuse to bless and help the needy and the poor, the widow, and the orphan, if they come to your door.
The second distinctive dimension was related to the religious practice of the Chishtis. It was proactive rather than passive; a ceaseless search for the divine other. In this respect the Chishtis followed a particular ritual more zealously then any other brotherhood. This was the practice of sama, evoking the divine presence through song or listening to music. The genius of the Chishti saints was that they accommodated the practice of sema with the full range of Muslim obligation

In order to connect with Allah on a personal and emotional level, the Chishtis were known for 5 basic practices.
1. Ḏh̲ikr-i Ḏj̲ahr, reciting the names of Allāh loudly, sitting in the prescribed posture at prescribed times
2.Ḏh̲ikr-i Ḵh̲afī, reciting the names of Allāh silently
3.Pās-i Anfās, regulating the breath
4.Murā-ḳāba, absorption in mystic contemplation
5.Čilla, forty days of spiritual confinement in a lonely corner or cell for prayer and contemplation

 Spiritual lineage
'Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib

Naqshbandi (an-Naqshbandiyyah, Nakşibendi, Naksbendi, Naksbandi) is one of the major Sufi spiritual orders (tariqa) of Sufi Islam. It is considered to be a "Potent" order.[1]
The Naqshbandi order is over 1,300 years old, and is active today. It is the only Sufi order that claims to trace its direct spiritual lineage/chain (silsilah) to the Islamic prophet Muhammad, through Abu Bakr, the first caliph and Muhammad's companion. This lineage also indirectly connects to Ali,[2] Muhammad's cousin, son-in-law and the Fourth Caliph, via Jafar as-Sadiq. In contrast, most other Sufi orders (turuq) trace their lineage through Ali.[3][4]

It is considered that the transmission of spiritual lineage or silsilah, is directly from one Sheikh to another, at or after the time of death or burial. It is not tied to a country, family or political appointment, but is a direct heart to heart transmission. It is also considered that the appointed Sheikh will be in some communication with past Sheikhs. At any one time, there will of course be many other Sheikhs, who will all naturally owe their bay'ah "spiritual allegiance" to the current master of the silsilah.

The Naqshbandi order owes many insights to Abu Ya'qub Yusuf al-Hamadani and Abd al-Khaliq al-Ghujdawani, who is regarded as the organizer of the practices and is responsible for placing stress upon the purely mental dhikr. It was later associated with Muhammad Baha ad-din an-Naqshabandi, hence the name of the order. Some interpret the name translation as "the engravers (of the heart)", "related to the image-maker", "pattern maker", "image maker", "reformer of patterns", "way of the chain" and "golden chain."
The name has changed over the years. Originally called "as-Siddiqiyya", around the times of Bayazid al-Bistami to Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani it was called at-Tayfuriyya, and from the times of 'Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani to Shah Naqshband it was called the "Khwajagan" or "Hodja". From the time of Shah Naqshband it has been called Naqshbandiyya.

Criteria of a Sufi Naqshbandi Sheikh
The following would always apply to genuine Sufi Naqshbandi teachers or Sheikhs:
They comply with Sharia. They must be a Aalim. There is no sufism without Ilm.
They regularly acknowledge the silsilah to which they give allegiance.
They openly and regularly defer to the current leader of the silsilah.
Bay'ah is given to the leader of the silsilah, not the local teacher or Sheikh.
They accept interaction with other murids of the order.
They don't accept ijazah from dead persons, or in dreams, or through special spiritual experience (rawhani)
They accept only written ijazah in live, in presence of witnesses.

Different Golden Chains…
There are different golden chains in Naqshbandi which are as follow…
Owaisiah Golden Chain
Naqshbandiyyah al-Mujaddidi Golden Chain
Naqshbandia Mujaddadia Sirajia Golden Chain
Naqshbandi Mujadadi Ghafori Golden chain
Naqshbandi Mujadadi Saifi Golden chain
Naqshbandi Mujadadi Tahiri Golden chain
Naqshbandi Mujadadi Makaan Shareefi Golden Chain
Naqshbandia Qasimiya Golden Chain
Naqshbandi-Haqqani Golden Chain
Naqshbandia Mujaddidia Khalidia Mahmudia Golden Chain in Dagestan

11 principal teachings
The first eight were formulated by Ghujdawani, and the last three were added by Baha ad- din.[5]
Remembrance (Yad kard): Always orally and mentally repeating the dhikr.
Restraint (Baz gasht): Engaging in the heart repetition of the phrase "Al-kalimat at-tayyiba."
Watchfulness (Nigah dasht): Being conscientious over wandering thoughts while repeating the phrase "Al-kalimat at-tayyiba."
Recollection (Yad dasht): Concentration upon the Divine presence in a condition of dhawq, foretaste, intuitive anticipation or perceptiveness, not using external aids.
Awareness while breathing (Hosh dar dam): Controlling one's breathing by not exhaling or inhaling in the forgetfullness of the Divine.
Journeying in one's homeland (Safar dar watan): An internal journey that moves the person from having blameworthy to praiseworthy properties. This is also referred to as the vision or revelation of the hidden side of the shahada.
Watching one's step (Nazar bar qadam): Do not be distracted from purpose of the ultimate journey.
Solitude in a crowd (Khalwat dar anjuman): Although journey is outwardly in this world, it is inwardly with God.
Temporal pause (Wuquf-I zamani): Keeping account of how one spends his or her time. If time is spent rightfully give thanks and time is spent incorrectly ask for forgiveness.
Numerical pause (Wuquf-I adadi): Checking that the heart-dhikr has been repeated the requisite number of times, taking into account one's wandering thoughts.
Heart pause (Wuquf-I qalbi): Forming a mental picture of one's heart with the name of God engraved to emphasize that the heart has no consciousness or goal other than God.

The Ni'matullāhī or Ne'matollāhī (Persian: نعمت‌اللهی) (also spelled as "Nimatollahi", "Nematollahi" or "Ni'matallahi) is a Sufi order (or tariqa) originating in Iran. According to Moojan Momen, the number of Ni'matullāhī in Iran in 1980 was estimated to be between 50,000 and 350,000.[1] Following the emigration of Dr. Javad Nurbakhsh and other dervishes after the 1979 Iranian Revolution, the tariqa has attracted numerous followers outside Iran, mostly in Europe, West Africa and North America, although the first khaniqa outside of Iran was formed in San Francisco, California, United States in 1975, a few years before the revolution in Iran.

The order is named after its 14th century CE founder Shah Nimatullah (Nur ad-Din Ni'matullah Wali), who settled in and is buried in Mahan, Kerman Province, Iran, where his tomb is still an important pilgrimage site. Shah Ni'matallahi was a disciple of the Qadiri sufi 'Abdallah Yafi'i: a chain of succession of masters (silsilah) has been claimed that extends back to Maruf Karkhi.[citation needed]Originally a Sunni order, the Ni'matullahi became Shia in the 16th century C.E. with the general conversion of Iran. The order has four main sub-orders;
The Khaniqahi Ni'matullahi or Dhu'r-riyasateyn (Munis 'Ali Shah) Ni'matullahiya, known in the West due to its former shaykh, Dr. Javad Nurbakhsh.
The Safialishahi, named after Sheikh Safi 'Ali Shah Isfahani (d. 1316AH/1899C.E.).
The Khanekhah Maleknia Naseralishah, named after its Sheikh Pir Malikniya, known as Nasir Ali Shah (d.1998 C.E.).
The Gonabadi or Bonyad Erfan Gonabadi, centered in Iran in the city of Gonabad, whose primary 20th century shaykh was Sultan Husayn Tabandah and the present qotb being Dr.Nur Ali Tabandah "Majzoub Ali Shah" residing in Tehran.

The last two, like many Qadiri orders, emphasise a way founded upon strict observance of sharia law.[2]
Dr. Javad Nurbakhsh took the lead of the Ni'matullahi Order in 1953 upon the death of his predecessor Munis 'Ali Shad Dhu al-Riyastain. Dr.Nurbakhsh undertook a major expansion of the order in Iran. In the 1970s visitiors from the United States joined the order while in Iran. In 1974 Dr. Nurbakhsh went to the United States and decided that there was a need to establish regular khaniqas there. In 1979 Dr.Nurbakhsh left Iran to flee the repressive government that did not appreciate alternate religious authorities. He lived in the United States until he moved to England in 1983. By the early 1990s there were nine Ni'matullahi khaniqas in the United States. The ones in the East Coast such as Boston, New York and Washington were almost completely attended by Americans, while the ones in California were about half American and half Iranian, with members coming from diverse religious backgrounds, not restricted to Shi'i Islam. [3]
Today, the Order has expanded to places such as Mexico, Russia, Western Africa, and Spain.

The numerous publications of the order include the bi-annual SUFI Journal. The Khaniqahi Nimatullahi also publish, in Persian, English and other languages, Dr. Nurbakhsh's seven-volume treatment of the states and stations the Sufi path, his twelve-volume explanation of the meanings of Sufi mystical terminology and his many annotated biographies of the great historic masters of the path. Social activities of the present-day order include the establishment of clinics and medical centers in impoverished regions of West Africa, where the order has attracted numerous adherents.

Famous sufis…
1.Shah Naimatullah
 2.Mir Seyed Ali Hamedani
3. Khajeh Isthaq Khatlani
4. Pir Jamal-e-din Ardestani
5. Shah Qasem Anwar
6. Sheikh Sadr-e-din Ardebili
7. Khajeh Baha-e-din Naqshbandi
8. Khajeh Mohammad Parsa

Mevlevi Order…
The Mevlevi Order, or the Mevlevilik or Mevleviye (Persian: مولويه - Molavīyeh) are a Sufi order founded in Konya (in present-day Turkey) by the followers of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi-Rumi, a 13th century Persian poet, Islamic jurist, and theologian. They are also known as the Whirling Dervishes due to their famous practice of whirling as a form of dhikr (remembrance of God). Dervish is a common term for an initiate of the Sufi path; the whirling is part of the formal Sama ceremony and the participants are properly known as semazen-s

The Mawlawi order was founded in 1273 by Rumi's followers after his death, particularly by his successor Hüsamettin Çelebi who decided to build a mausoleum for Mawlâna, and then Mawlâna's son, Baha al-Din Muhammad-i Walad (or Çelebi, Chelebi, meaning "fully initiated"). He was an accomplished Sufi mystic with great organizing talents. His personal efforts were continued by his successor Ulu Arif Çelebi.

The Mawlawi believe in performing their dhikr in the form of a "dance" and musical ceremony known as the Sama, which involves the whirling, from which the order acquired its nickname. The Sema represents a mystical journey of man's spiritual ascent through mind and love to the "Perfect". Turning towards the truth, the follower grows through love, deserts his ego, finds the truth, and arrives at the "Perfect". He then returns from this spiritual journey as a man who has reached maturity and a greater perfection, able to love and to be of service to the whole of creation.

Origin of Sama
The origin of Sama is credited to Rumi, Sufi master and in whose name the Mevlevi Order was founded. The story of the creation of this unique form of dhikrtells that Rumi was walking through the town marketplace one day, when he heard the rhythmic hammering of the goldbeaters. It is believed that Rumi heard the dhikr, "la elaha ella'llah" in Arabic "لا اله الا الله", or in English, "There is none worthy of worship but Allah(God)", spoken by the apprentices beating the gold, and was so filled with happiness that he stretched out both of his arms and started spinning in a circle. With that, the practice of Sama and the dervishes of the Mevlevi Order were born.

The Mevlevi became a well-established Sufi order in the Ottoman Empire by realizing a blood relationship with the Ottoman sultans when Devlet Hatun, a descendant of Sultan Veled married the sultan Bayezid I. Their son Mehmed I Çelebi became the next sultan, endowing the order, as did his successors, with many gifts.

Many of the members of the order served in various official positions of the Caliphate. The centre for the Mawlawi order was in Konya, where their 13th century guiding spirit, Mewlana (Jelaleddin al-Rumi) is buried. There is also a Mevlevi monastery or dergah in Istanbul, near the Galata Tower, where the sama (whirling ceremony) is performed and accessible to the public.

During the Ottoman Empire era, the Mevlevi order produced a number of famous poets and musicians such asSheikh Ghalib, Ismail Ankaravi (both buried at the Galata Mevlevi-Hane) and Abdullah Sari. Vocal and instrumental music, especially the ney, plays an important role in the Mevlevi ceremony and famous composers such as Dede Efendi wrote music for the ayin (cycle of Mevlevi ceremonial music). The ayin text is normally a selection from the poetry of Mevlana. If one buys a CD of Turkish Sufi music, chances are it will be a Mevlevi ayin.

During the Ottoman period, the Mevlevi order spread into the Balkans, Syria, Lebanon, and Egypt (and is still practiced in both countries where they are known as the Mewlewi Order). The Bosnianwriter Meša Selimović wrote the book "The Dervish and Death" about a Mevlevi dergah in Sarajevo.
The Mevlevi Order has some similarities to other Dervish orders such as the Qadiri (founded in 1165), the Rifa'i (founded in 1182), and the Kalenderis.

The Mevlevi Regiment
During World War I, Mevlevi Regiment served in Syria and Palestine under the command of 4th Army. A battalion of some 800 dervishes was formed December 1914 in Konya (the Mucahidin-i Mevleviyye) and was sent to Damascus. Another battalion of regular recruits was added at the end of August 1916, and together they formed the Mevlevi Regiment. This unit did not fight until the end of the Palestine campaign and was disbanded at the end of September 1918.
Mustafa Kemal met with members of the Mevlevi Order in 1923 before its institutional expression became illegal.
Origin and foundation
The Shadhili Tariqa is a Sufi order of Sunni Islam founded by Abul Hasan Ali ash-Shadhili. Followers (Arabic murids, "seekers") of the Shadhiliya are known as Shadhilis.

It has historically been of importance and influence in North Africa and Egypt with many contributions to Islamic literature. Among the figures most known for their literary and intellectual contributions are Ibn 'Ata Allah, author of the Hikam, and Ahmad Zarruq, author of numerous commentaries and works, and Ahmad ibn Ajiba who also wrote numerous commentaries and works. In poetry expressing love of Muhammad, there have been the notable contributions of Muhammad al-Jazuli, author of the "Dala'il al-Khayrat", and Busiri, author of the famous poem, the Qaṣīda al-Burda. Many of the head lecturers of al-Azhar University in Cairo have also been followers of this tariqa.

Of the various branches of the Shadhili tariqa are the Fassiyatush, found largely in India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The Darqawi branch is found mostly in Morocco and the Alawiyya (no connection to the Turkish or Syrian Alawi or Alevi groups) which originated in Algeria is now found the world over, particularly in Syria, Jordan, France and among many English-speaking communities. British scholar,Martin Lings wrote an extensive biography of the founder of this branch, Ahmad al-Alawi, entitled 'A Sufi Saint of the 20th century'
The Swedish impressionist painter and Sufi scholar Ivan Aguéli (1869–1917) was the first official Moqaddam (representative) of the Shadhiliyya in Western Europe. Aguéli initiated René Guénon (1886–1951) into the Shadhili tariqa.  Guénon went on to write a number of influential books on tradition and modernit

Shadhiliyya has nearly 72 branches across the globe. A few prominent branches are listed below.

Fassiyatush shadhili sufi order was established by Qutbul Ujud Ghouthuz Zamaaninaa Ash Sheikh Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Mas'ood bin Abdur Rahman Al Makki Al Magribi Al Fassi Ash Shadhili (Imam Fassi) who was a Moroccan by origin and born in Makkah.[1] Fassiyatush Shadhiliyya is widely practised in India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Mauritius and Indonesia. The descendants ofImam Fassi who are Sheikhs of Fassiyatush Shadhiliyya who live in Makkah and in Jeddah visit to these countries frequently to train Ikhwan.

The Darqawiyya, a Moroccan branch of the Shadhili order, was founded in the late 18th century CE by Muhammad al-Arabi al-Darqawi. Selections from the Letters of Shaykh al-Darqawi have been translated by the Shadhili initiate Titus Burckhardt, and also by the scholar Aisha Bewley. One of the first tariqas to be established in the West was the 'Alawiya branch of the Darqawiyya,  which was named after Shaykh Ahmad ibn Mustafa al-'Alawi al-Mustaghanimi, popularly known as Shaykh al-Alawi. "A significant book about him, written by Martin Lings, is A Sufi Saint of the Twentieth Century."[2]

The Maryamiyya branch of the Shadhiliyya Order was founded by Shaykh 'Isa Nur al-Din Ahmad or Frithjof Schuon (1907–1998), a European disciple of Shaykh Ahmad al-'Alawi, who established the Order in Europe and North America.  Some of Schuon's most eminent students include, Titus Burckhardt (1908–1984) and Martin Lings (1909–2005), author of the aforementioned text, A Sufi Saint of the Twentieth Century and the universally acclaimed biography of the Prophet,Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources

The 'Attasiyah Order is a branch of the 'Alawi Order. It is centered in Yemen but also has centers in Pakistan, India, andMyanmar. The 'Alawiya order in Yemen has recently been studied by the anthropologist David Buchman. In his article "The Underground Friends of God and Their Adversaries: A Case Study and Survey of Sufism in Contemporary Yemen", Professor Buchman summarizes the results of his six month period of fieldwork in Yemen.

Another figure is "Shaykh Abdalqadir al-Murabit, a Scottish convert to Islam, whose lineage is Shadhili-Darqawi. Currently his order is known as the Murabitun. At other times his order has been known as the Darqawiyya and Habibiya. One of the first books that Shaykh Abdalqadir wrote was The Book of Strangers, which he authored under the name Ian Dallas. For a brief anecdote of Shaykh Abdalqadir in the early 1970s
Another contemporary order deriving, in part, from Shaykh Abdalqadir al-Murabit is the al-Haydariyah al-Shadhiliyah, headed by Shaykh Fadhlalla Haeri. Of Shi'ite descent, Shaykh Fadhlalla teaches within neither a Shi'i nor a Sunni framework.

Another branch of the Shadhilia which has groups in Egypt, Indonesia, Turkey and America is the Shadhilia-Batawia founded by Sheikh Ibrahim al-Batawi, for many years professor at al-Azhar. He was a confrere of Sheikh Abdu-l-Halim Mahmud, Shaikh al-Azhar, who was very influential in the revival of Sufism in Egypt. Sheikh Ibrahim’s student, Sheikh Abdullah Nooruddeen Durkee has established the Shadhdhuliyyah-Baddawia order in the US. Sheikh Nooruddeen has translated and transliterated the Qur'an and has compiled two definitive books on the Shadhdhuliyyiah,Orisons and Origins.

Wriiten By: Faizan Khan

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